Kenley's 'Hardest Day' - An Introduction and list of Casualties

In 1940, Hitler knew he had to destroy the RAF’s Fighter Command to gain air superiority and make the invasion of Britain possible. This had to be achieved before Winter set in. 

Six days of attacks by the Luftwaffe, with substantial losses on both sides, had been followed by an ominous silence on Saturday,17th August, 1940, but it wasn’t to last. On Sunday 18th August, the peace was shattered by three major assaults intended to knock out Fighter Command for good.

A remarkable photo of the smoke rising over RAF Kenley as the hangars burnt after the raids on 18/8/1940. (Ken Raffield). 

18th August, 1940, was christened “The Hardest Day”, because it was the day of The Battle of Britain that saw the highest losses of aircraft on both sides. 100 German and 136 British aircraft are believed to have been destroyed or damaged. You can read more about the aircraft involved here.

The targets were the airfields at Kenley, Biggin Hill, Hornchurch and North Weald, Gosport, Ford, Thorney Island, and the radar station at Poling. Fighter Command’s defending Spitfires and Hurricanes would either be destroyed on the ground by bombing, or in the air by large numbers of escorting Messerschmitts.

RAF Kenley was singled out for a complicated pincer attack, by Bomber Geshwader 76, which, if successful, would destroy the airfield for good. 

  • First, a dozen Junkers 88’s of the 2nd Gruppe, would carry out a precision dive-bombing attack on Kenley’s buildings and hangars.
  • Five minutes later, this would be followed by 27 Dornier 17’s bombing from high altitude to knock out the landing ground and airfield defences.
  •  Finally, the 9th Staffel would come in at low altitude in their Dornier 17’s, and finish off anything that was left standing. War reporter Georg Hinze and photographer Rolf Von Pebal would be on board to record their triumph.

However, the operation did not go according to plan. Poor weather conditions made it difficult for the bombers to get into formation near Calais.

The Dorniers of the 1st and 3rd Gruppen were only six minutes late, but they had already overtaken the Junkers 88’s of the 2nd Gruppe. This had ominous consequences for the low-flying 9th Staffel, who arrived at Kenley first and found the airfield unexpectedly intact and fore-warned of their arrival. You can read more about Fighter Command’s efforts to counter the raid here.

Only a few minutes after the 9th Staffel’s devastating low-level raid, the onslaught began again as the main group of 27 Dornier 17’s arrived over Kenley and began to drop their bombs from high altitude. Over 150 bombs missed the airfield and caused a great deal of damage in the surrounding areas. Railway lines were hit and Valley Rd was impassable. A number of houses in Whyteleafe and Caterham were destroyed, while many more were extensively damaged. 

Finally, the Junkers 88 dive bombers arrived. Seeing the smoke rising over Kenley, it was obvious that the timing of the raid had gone awry, so they headed for their alternative target – West Malling.

Sgt. Walley remembered at Kenley airfield along with the other RAF Kenley casualties of the ‘Hardest Day,’ for the 80th anniversary of the Battle of Britain, 2020. (Linda Duffield).

Kenley Service Personnel killed as a result of enemy action on The Hardest Day:

In the air:

Sergeant Peter Kenneth Walley

On the Ground:

Flight Lieutenant Robert Stevenson Cromie M.D., M.M.S.A.

Aircraftman Second Class William Charles Stanley Ford.

Aircraftman First Class Leslie Barton Harris.

Leading Aircraftman Thomas Holroyd.

Aircraftman Second Class George Henry Mailivoire.

Aircraftman First Class Roy Tapner.

Aircraftman Second Class Francis Hugh Turrell.

Aircraftman Second Class Claude Malcolm Yorke.

Aircraftman Second Class Arthur Leonard Moore died later of his injuries.

Leading Aircraftman William John Tanner.

One Private of the 12(HD) Queen’s Royal Regt. was severely wounded and died on 20th August.  He was: 

Private William Albert Smith

Killed in action at Kenley Waterworks:

Platoon Commander William Battle


Kenley Service Personnel Injured on The Hardest Day:

In the Air:

Pilot Officer D. Looker – No.615 Squadron, severe shock. Hurricane L1592 (now on display in the Science Museum, London) damaged by Messerschmitt 109 of Fighter Geshwader 3 near Kenley at 1.23pm. Looker force-landed at Croydon and received further damage from their anti-aircraft gunners.

Pilot Officer Petrus “Dutch” Hugo – No.615 Squadron,  wounded. Shot down by Messerschmitt 109 of Fighter Geshwader 3, near Kenley at 1.23pm. Hurricane R4221, KW*M,  crash landed to the north of Orpington, damaged beyond repair.

Flight Lieutenant L. M. Gaunce – No.615 Squadron, slightly wounded. Shot down by Messerschmitt 109 of Fighter Geshwader 3, near Kenley, at 1.23pm. Gaunce baled out. Hurricane P2969 crashed at Robsacks Wood, Scab Harbour Rd, south of Sevenoaks Weald.

On the Ground:

Aircraftman Second Class Leslie Maw

Leading Aircraftman James Abbott Atkinson

Aircraftman Second Class W. A. S. Wenham

Aircraftman Second Class Royston Guy Kingham

Leading Aircraftman James Nichol Snowden

Aircraftman Second Class Victor Arnold

Aircraftman David Ralph Kirby

WAAF Mary Coulthard

Two men of the 43rd Light Anti-Aircraft Regiment.

No.111 Squadron, RAF Croydon, were scrambled to counter the attack by the 9th Staffel, KG76, over Kenley.

Flight Lieutenant Stanley Dudley Pierce Connors, DFC and Bar – killed in action by return fire from 9th Staffel (or ground fire),Blackness Lane, Leaves Green at 1.30pm. Hurricane R4187 destroyed.

Sergeant Harry Newton – shot down by Uffz. F. Bergmann, gunner on the Guenther Unger’s Dornier Do. 17. Newton baled out wounded, at 1.30pm. Hurricane P3943 crashed at Tatsfield, destroyed.

Old adversaries meet again in friendship at Kenley in August 1982 – Harry Newton (left) with Guenther Unger. ©Colin Lee

Sergeant H. Deacon – Rolf Von Pebal mentions a Hurricane being hit by the gunner aboard  Reichel’s Dornier. This is believed to be Deacon’s aircraft, N2340, which crashed on the edge of woods near ‘The Bull’  pub, Chelsham Green. Deacon baled out wounded around 1.30pm and came down near ‘The Harrow,’ Warlingham.

Pilot Officer P. Simpson – damaged by return fire from Dornier Do.17, 9th Staffel. Force-landed on Woodcote Park golf course near Epsom, 1.40pm. Hurricane P3399 damaged.

Damage to Aircraft on the Ground at Kenley

Four No.615 squadron Hurricanes were destroyed on the ground at Kenley including P3158, P3487 and R4186. Two more were damaged, one of which was P3161, as well as one of No.64 squadron’s Spitfires. Other aircraft destroyed or damaged on the ground at Kenley include 1 Miles Master, 3 Miles Magisters, 1 Bristol Blenheim and a Percival Proctor.

One of No.615 Squadron’s Hurricanes, damaged on the ground, 18/8/1940.

Damage to Kenley’s Buildings and Facilities

  • Three hangars, the station headquarters and the station hospital were destroyed.
  • Barrack blocks and the Sergeants’ Mess were also damaged. Personnel billeted in the undamaged barrack blocks stayed there for a couple of days after the raid, until they could be moved into vacant private houses in the local area.
  • A water main was fractured during the raid, which made fire-fighting difficult.
  • The Officers’ Mess sustained superficial damage.
  • Communications to the Operations room were damaged.  As a result, the Operations room was moved to a butcher’s shop in Caterham, which was already used for training op’s room personnel. This remained in use until a new operations room at ‘The Grange,’ Old Coulsdon, was ready in December 1940.

The remains of a burnt out hangar after ‘The Hardest Day.’

Civilian Casualties in the Surrounding Area

Roughly 150 bombs fell in the area around RAF Kenley. Alfred Price mentions six people were killed and twenty-one seriously injured, in his book “The Hardest Day.”
So far, we have identified five civilian casualties in Caterham, Kenley and Coulsdon.

Ellen Phoebe Venables of 161 Godstone Rd, died at Cleansing Station, Kenley, aged 91. (Croydon Archives Register of deaths due to War Operations gives place of death as 161 Godstone Rd). Buried at Bandon Hill, Plot P19a. 

Robina Elizabeth Hatch of 52 Malcolm Rd, Coulsdon, aged 79. Killed by a bomb splinter while in an air raid shelter at 50 Malcolm Rd.  She was the widow of Alfred James Hatch. Buried at Bandon Hill Cemetery, Plot P19a. 

Joseph Walter Williams of 159 Godstone Road, Kenley. Son of Tom Williams, of 206 Mottingham Road, Mottingham, Kent; husband of Jane Williams (nee Reick). Injured at Kenley Water Works, where he was employed as a stoker. He died the same day at Purley Cottage Hospital, aged 42.

John Joseph Whelan of Borough Green Farm, Lingfield. Son of Joseph and Mary Whelan, of Lettergullion, Drumlish, Co. Longford, Irish Republic. Killed by a bomb splinter at Red Lion Hotel, Brighton Road, Coulsdon, aged 24. Buried at Bandon Hill Cemetery, Plot B17a.

The grave of Winifred May Charlton. Photo: Kev Barnes.

Winifred May Charlton (nee Atkins) died at her home, 22 Oak Rd, Caterham, aged 41. She was the wife of Harry James Charlton and worked as a shop assistant prior to getting married. Peter Allam’s family remember that a child was killed in Oak Rd, but so far we have failed to find supporting records. 

Peter Allam’s Grandprents’ home in Oak Rd, Caterham, after the bombing of ‘The Hardest Day.’ (Peter Allam). You can read their story here.

Eye Witnesses.

Kenley Revival has been privileged to collect several eye-witness accounts of the raids. Here are some of the most notable.

Warrant Officer Edward George Alford GM

Stan Ford (“B” Flight, No.615 Squadron ground crew)

Vic Bashford (“B” Flight, No.615 Squadron ground crew)

Frances Cherry WAAF

Lillias Barr WAAF

Ken Raffield (civilian)

Despite the severity of the raids which took place on the 18th August, 1940, RAF Kenley stood firm. The airfield was back in use the following day.


Many thanks to Marcelle Williams (for researching Joseph Walter Williams) and Colin Lee.

Comments about this page

  • Patricia Gill writes:

    “I remember the raid on Kenley very well, the aircraft just seemed to drop out of the sky. We sheltered in the cupboard under the stairs. The house was damaged and on the Monday we had to leave the house because of unexploded bombs. We used to run outside and wave to the pilots as they flew out or returned. In after years I worked at Kenley when Reach for the Sky was being filmed.”

    By Linda Duffield (23/05/2021)
  • I am certain I witnessed the attack from Coulsdon Court Road, beside the golf course, 1.5 miles from RAF Kenley aerodrome. It was a Sunday mid-day, I was 30 months old and in a push-chair coming home. Suddenly the sirens went (we knew the sound well) and we were ‘caught with our pants down’ one hundred yards from home and safety. At the same time there were explosions over towards Kenley. I had never experienced a daylight raid before – they always came at night. Suddenly I saw a German plane ‘ with a glass green-house on the front’ and a black cross on the fuselage. It passed over from the direction of Coulsdon. You might think that 30 months old is too young to to have memories. You should try it when they’re flying overhead and dropping stuff on you.

    By Tim Sesemann (22/05/2021)

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